Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans coexisted (2022)

Here is a photo of the Paluxy River in Glen Rose Texas. This rapidly flowing river runs through the middle of Dinosaur Valley State Park, famous for its dinosaur tracks. Not as well known is the fact that human tracks have also been found, not only in the same formation, but on the same bedding plane and in some cases overlapping the dinosaur tracks.

Stan Taylor (pointing at track) began his excavation of the Taylor Trail in 1969 and continued working through 1972. Initially, only two tracks could be seen in the Paluxy River bed.

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By following the trail back under the river bank, seven more very human like tracks were exposed. The process involved removing tons of limestone overburden, effectively eliminating the possibility that the tracks were carved.

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The Taylor Trail, as it normally appears in the river under water. Subsequent excavation has extended the trail to a total of fourteen tracks in a consistent right-left pattern. The entire sequence can be seen through the water in this 1994 photograph, even though a thin layer of mud obscures the details. A trail of three-toed dinosaur tracks can be seen crossing at an angle of approximately 30 degrees.

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The drought of 1999 revealed the entire trail in dramatic detail!

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Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans coexisted (6)Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans coexisted (7)

Could the human tracks have been made much later?

(Video) Are There Evidences that Humans and Dinosaurs Coexisted?

Suppose you saw several footprints in a sidewalk and someone said, "This print was made ten years after the one beside it." Would you buy that? No way! We understand that tracks in mud do not last long. To be preserved, they must be solidified rapidly, within days. Once the material hardens, the tracks are preserved and footprints will no longer leave an impression. Furthermore, exposed tracks weather rapidly. Therefore, we know the next layer was deposited immediately and rapidly.

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Track Number



This fossil footprint (-3B) is in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. It is one of a 14 track sequence called the Taylor Trail. The tracks are consistently 11.5" in length with consistently alternating rights and lefts. They are

among and, in this case, within dinosaur tracks.

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This print is one of the most spectacular in the sequence. When examined carefully a right human foot print can be seen in compelling detail, almost completely within a dinosaur foot print. Click on this picture to

highlight the details of these two amazing prints.
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Click here to see the outline of the dino track, then the outline of where the human stepped partially in the dino track.

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(Video) Could humans and dinosaurs have coexisted? A paleontologist explains.


Click here to see an outline imposed on a close up of the toes.
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-3B destroyed once for all time!


This is one of three tracks featured at the 1989 Dayton, TN creation conference that was destroyed the next day. On August 12, 1989 Dr. Don Patton spoke at a creation conference in Dayton, TN. He presented compelling evidence that both human and dinosaur tracks were present at the Taylor Trail, including the above pictures. Two well known evolutionists were present and at least one was conspicuously disturbed by this presentation. Both flew to Dallas the next morning and went immediately to the Paluxy River. It is reliably reported that they were in the river that afternoon with an "iron bar." Three days before they were in the river the footprint was observed looking like the picture above. Three days after they were in the river, it was observed looking like the picture left. (Clear photography was not possible till the water went down several months later, when this photograph was taken.)

Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans coexisted (13)Slanderous accusations answered


Top view photo

: The 1988 photograph on the left shows a very human-like fossil footprint in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas, well known for its dinosaur tracks. This left footprint is in a sequence of 14 that are left/right consistent and consistently about 11.5 inches in length. The tracks were excavated from beneath six feet of alternating layers of clay and limestone. The surrounding "mud push up" helps demonstrate authenticity.

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Excellent side view photo

: By 1992 erosion revealed that this footprint was directly beside one of 134 dinosaur prints on the same platform. The entire trail of human-like tracks is among, within, across and, in this case, beside 25 inch dinosaur tracks.

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(Video) How scientists solved this dinosaur puzzle


The +5 fossil footprint as it appears in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas, famous for its dinosaur tracks. Dinosaur Valley State Park is near by. Here, the 11.5" human-like footprint is superimposed on the heel of a 25" dinosaur track. This right footprint (+5) is followed by a left (+6) which is also 11.5" in length. The right-left pattern is consistent throughout the entire sequence of fourteen 11.5" footprints known as the Taylor Trail

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with & without foot


Here are two views of the +5 fossil footprint. You can see that it fits an actual human foot!

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This fossil footprint (+3) is one of fourteen that make up the Taylor Trail, a sequence of very human-like tracks found with at least 134 dinosaur tracks in the bed of the Paluxy river, near Glen Rose, Texas. The picture on the left shows the track when first excavated, about 1972.

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Sixteen years later erosion had removed a thin veneer of rock and revealed that the track was actually within a dinosaur track that was not visible initially. The dinosaur track is flush with the surface for the most part and slightly redder in color, indicating infill material. When viewed through the water, only the dinosaur track is obvious.

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However, when the water goes down, the human shaped depression can still be seen.

(Video) Did Dinosaurs Ever Live Alongside Humans?

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This cast was made by Stan Taylor in 1970. It appears to be an impression of one of the fossil footprints (+1) which make a 14 track sequence called the Taylor Trail, found in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. The tracks are consistently 11.5" in length with consistently alternating rights and lefts. There are 134 dinosaur tracks on the same platform.

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This picture of the +1 print, taken in 1988, shows the effect of 18 years of erosion which proceeds rather rapidly after the overlying layers are removed. A chunk has come out of the left side, but the same general shape is seen.

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Prize Track +1 destroyed once for all time!

This is one of three tracks featured at the 1989 Dayton, TN creation conference that was destroyed the next day. On August 12, 1989 Dr. Don Patton spoke at a creation conference in Dayton, TN. He presented compelling evidence that both human and dinosaur tracks were present at the Taylor Trail, including the above pictures. Two well known evolutionists were present and at least one was conspicuously disturbed by this presentation. Both flew to Dallas the next morning and went immediately to the Paluxy River. It is reliably reported that they were in the river that afternoon with an "iron bar." Three days before they were in the river the footprint was observed looking like the picture above, right. Three days after they were in the river, it was observed looking like the picture below, right. (Clear photography was not possible till the water went down several months later, when this photograph was taken.)

(Click on photo for high resolution)

Perhaps the strongest feature of the evidence presented by the Taylor Trail is the fact that it is composed of a sequence of fourteen tracks, consistent in length, in a consistent right-left pattern. Each of the 14 tracks demonstrate, at least, a general oblong human-like shape.

(Video) Dinosaur Myth Busted: Dinosaurs and humans

They are amazingly consistent in length. The largest variance from the average is less than 5%. In the sequence of associated dinosaur tracks, length varies as much as 40%. Of course, some of them are still in the process of being "revealed" by erosion.

Individual toes can be discerned in seven of the fourteen tracks. Such detail is unexpected. In Mary Leakey's Laetoli tracks, one great toe can be distinguished but no individual small toes can be seen.

Left-right distinctions can be made in twelve of the fourteen tracks. Two are simply oblong shapes. When such determinations can be made, they are left-right consistent, with lefts where lefts should be and rights where rights should be.


Did humans and dinosaurs exist at the same time? ›

No! After the dinosaurs died out, nearly 65 million years passed before people appeared on Earth. However, small mammals (including shrew-sized primates) were alive at the time of the dinosaurs.

What coexisted with dinosaurs? ›

Prehistoric turtles coexisted with dinosaurs until they went extinct 65 million years ago. These turtles belonged to a group of ancient reptiles called Archelon, which is closely called related to the leatherback sea turtle we can see these days.

Who came first dinosaurs or Adam and Eve? ›

Dinny's new owners, pointing to the Book of Genesis, contend that most dinosaurs arrived on Earth the same day as Adam and Eve, some 6,000 years ago, and later marched two by two onto Noah's Ark.

What does Bible say about dinosaurs? ›

According to the Bible, dinosaurs must have been created by God on the sixth day of creation. Genesis 1:24 says, “And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.”

Would humans exist if dinosaurs didn't go extinct? ›

They would still probably be small, scrawny, and very generalized. But instead, the mammals were able to evolve and diversify and, well, ultimately, millions of years later, become some humans. So perhaps we would not have been here if it weren't for this extinction event 65 million years ago.

Are dinosaur still alive today? ›

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Other than birds, however, there is no scientific evidence that any dinosaurs, such as Tyrannosaurus, Velociraptor, Apatosaurus, Stegosaurus, or Triceratops, are still alive. These, and all other non-avian dinosaurs became extinct at least 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous Period.

Where did the first human come from? ›

Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa.

How long after dinosaurs did humans appear? ›

Modern humans are currently thought to have appeared around 300,000 years ago — more than 65 million years after the non-avian dinosaurs disappeared.

Who was the first human on Earth? ›

The First Humans

One of the earliest known humans is Homo habilis, or “handy man,” who lived about 2.4 million to 1.4 million years ago in Eastern and Southern Africa.

When did humans first appear on Earth? ›

The first human ancestors appeared between five million and seven million years ago, probably when some apelike creatures in Africa began to walk habitually on two legs. They were flaking crude stone tools by 2.5 million years ago. Then some of them spread from Africa into Asia and Europe after two million years ago.

Were there humans in the ice age? ›

Were humans around during the Ice Age? Humans were (and still are) definitely alive during the Ice Age. Scientists and anthropologists have found evidence of human remains existing nearly 12,000 years ago. The current interglacial period began around 10,000 years ago.

Dragon legends are not the only evidence of mankind living with dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles.

While the sea wolves may be shamanistic representations or totem animals, the different sea serpents and the sea dragons are not stylized zoomorphs like the sea wolves but appear to be representations of creatures which the First Nations people saw and with which they may have had dangerous encounters.. Although not a depiction of a dinosaur made by man, this “evidence” is often used of living dinosaurs and so obviously fits into the question, “Did man live alongside dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles?” In April 1977, the Japanese fishing trawler Zuiyo-maru , operating off the coast of New Zealand, snagged a large carcass at a depth of about 1,000 feet.. We also know from Scripture that dinosaurs and pterosaurs were taken onboard Noah’s ark (marine reptiles were not), and consequently we can boldly state that mankind lived with dinosaurs and pterosaurs after the flood.. We must reiterate that the reason we believe man lived with dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles is not because of the above or other evidences but because Scripture says so.. We also know from Scripture that dinosaurs and pterosaurs were taken onboard Noah’s ark (marine reptiles were not), and consequently we can boldly state that mankind lived with dinosaurs and pterosaurs after the flood.. But dragon legends are not the only evidence of mankind living with dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles.. Therefore we definitely know that mankind lived with dinosaurs and pterosaurs after the flood, and with the biblical mention of Leviathan in Scripture, at least some types of marine reptiles also survived the flood.

It is a rare object that stimulates the curiosity of archaeologists, ancient astronaut theorists, and creationists all at the same time, but the Ica stones have done just that.

The Ica stones refer to the momentous collection of more than 15,000 engraved stones which curiously depict clear and detailed dinosaurs, complex medical surgery, and forms of advanced technology such as telescopes.. Most believe the stones are nothing more than an elaborate hoax, while others maintain that they are evidence that an ancient race of humans who possessed advanced technology coexisted with dinosaurs.. According to reported accounts of the discovery of the Ica stones, in 1966, Peruvian physician Javier Cabrera Darquea was presented with a stone by a friend for his 42 nd birthday which had a carved picture of what he believed to be an extinct fish.. Cabrera later found another source of the stones, a farmer named Basilio Uschuya, who claimed he found a huge cache of the stones when the Ica River overflowed its banks destroying a nearby mountain and exposing an unknown cave.. Just some of the thousands of Ica stones that form Cabrera’s collection.. Facing years of incarceration, the farmer recanted his story claiming he'd carved all 15,000 of the stones himself.. In it he argued that the stones show that humans originated from another planet and were at least 405 million years old.. Indeed, Uschuya himself recanted his forging story during an interview with a journalist, saying that he claimed they were a hoax to avoid jail.. The engraved images on the stones resemble those found on the Ica stones sold by Uschuya.. Featured image: Ica Stone depicting man on top of a dinosaur.

Bible verses about dinosaurs What does the Bible say about dinosaurs? Many people ask are there dinosaurs in the Bible? Did they really exist? How did dinosaurs become extinct? What can we learn from them? These are three of several questions that we will be answering in this article today. Even though the word dinosaur

How did dinosaurs become extinct?. And God saw that it was good.“. Could the dinosaurs have gone extinct before the flood?. Could these have been dinosaurs?. Job 40:15-24 “Look at Behemoth, which I made along with you.. Could Leviathan have been a dinosaur?. Secondly, God gave humans permission to eat meat following the flood (Genesis 9:3).. Why was God describing Behemoth and Leviathan in Job 40 and 41?. If Job were able to, God said, “Then I Myself will admit to you that your own right hand can save you.” God goes on to describe two of His creations – Behemoth and Leviathan – mighty creatures that only God could subdue.

Even though our society tells us that it's narrow-minded to believe in ultimate truth, there's lots of evidence that says we should run after it with all our hearts. Christ says the truth will set us free. And that promise is true for all time.

They also made moral decisions on the basis of the supernatural; things were believed to be right or wrong based on what God thought.. People began to believe that the physical world is all there is — no supernatural world and no God (or if there is a God, He doesn’t have much to do with us).. And it’s even reasonable to search for ultimate truth in God.. And as you dig into Christianity, you’ll find that there are lots of good reasons to believe in God, Jesus, the Bible and the truths that are found there.. You’ll remember that when people believed in God as the source of ultimate truth, they depended on the revelation of His will as the basis for what they would believe and how they would act.. And scientists, even though they don’t like to admit it, have to take some things (the things that can’t be proven) on faith.. What does the Bible have to say about truth?. Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” (John 8:31-32) “Jesus answered, ‘I am the way and the truth and the life.. As our source of truth, the Bible does both of these things.. The Bible’s story of how the world came to be and how humans were given life is called creation: God made the universe, and He made man in His own image.

The mammals of the Mesozoic Era lived alongside larger dinosaurs. Here's a look at the evolution, biology, and behavior of the first mammals.

Ask the average person on the street, and he or she might guess that the first mammals didn't appear on the scene until after the dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago, and, moreover, that the last dinosaurs evolved into the first mammals.. In fact, the first mammals evolved from a population of vertebrates called therapsids (mammal-like reptiles ) at the end of the Triassic period and coexisted with dinosaurs throughout the Mesozoic Era.. It was only after the dinosaurs went kaput that mammals were able to evolve beyond their tiny, quivering, mouselike forms into the widely specialized species that populate the world today.. Scientifically speaking, dinosaurs tended to be very, very big and early mammals tended to be very, very small.. Before discussing how the first mammals evolved, it's helpful to define what distinguishes mammals from other animals, especially reptiles.. Regarding the fossil record, paleontologists can distinguish ancestral mammals from ancestral reptiles by the shape of their skull and neck bones, as well as the presence, in mammals, of two small bones in the inner ear (in reptiles, these bones constitute part of the jaw).. As mentioned above, the first mammals evolved toward the end of the Triassic period from a population of therapsids, the "mammal-like reptiles" that arose in the early Permian period and produced such uncannily mammal-like beasts as Thrinaxodon and Cynognathus .. As you can imagine, paleontologists have a hard time distinguishing between the last, highly evolved therapsids and the first, newly evolved mammals.. Late Triassic vertebrates like Eozostrodon, Megazostrodon and Sinoconodon appear to have been intermediate "missing links" between therapsids and mammals, and even in the early Jurassic period, Oligokyphus possessed reptilian ear and jaw bones at the same time as it showed every other sign (rat-like teeth, the habit of suckling its young) of being a mammal.. The only ecological niches open to the first mammals entailed a) feeding on plants, insects and small lizards, b) hunting at night (when predatory dinosaurs were less active), and c) living high up in trees or underground, in burrows.. Perhaps the most spectacular deviation from the basic Mesozoic mammalian body plan was Repenomamus, a three-foot-long, 25-pound carnivore that is the only mammal known to have fed on dinosaurs (a fossilized specimen of Repenomamus has been found with the remains of a Psittacosaurus in its stomach).. Recently, paleontologists discovered conclusive fossil evidence for the first important split in the mammal family tree, the one between placental and marsupial mammals .. Ironically, the same characteristics that helped mammals maintain a low profile during the Mesozoic Era also allowed them to survive the K/T Extinction Event that doomed the dinosaurs.. With the dinosaurs out of the way, the Cenozoic Era was an object lesson in convergent evolution: mammals were free to radiate into open ecological niches, in many cases taking on the general "shape" of their dinosaur predecessors.

The History Channel presents self-appointed challengers of science who take on the idea that aliens caused the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs

Despite this, both Dye and the Ancient Aliens program present the stones as if they were authentic ancient artifacts that record the survival of dinosaurs such as Triceratops to almost the present day.. Different dating systems are used for rocks of different ages, and these techniques have put time estimates on when dinosaurs lived.. Did aliens clear away dinosaurs so that we might live?. There were a few real scientists on the program.. Dinosaurs

Learn about the evolution of vertebrate animals, from tiny proto-fish 500 million years ago to the birds, mammals, and reptiles of today.

The proverbial "fish out of water," tetrapods were the first vertebrate animals to climb out of the sea and colonize dry (or at least swampy) land, a key evolutionary transition that occurred somewhere between 400 and 350 million years ago, during the Devonian period.. During the Carboniferous period, dating from about 360 to 300 million years ago, terrestrial vertebrate life on earth was dominated by prehistoric amphibians .. About 320 million years ago, give or take a few million years, the first true reptiles evolved from amphibians.. The earth's landmasses were quickly populated by pelycosaurs, archosaurs (including prehistoric crocodiles ), anapsids (including prehistoric turtles ), prehistoric snakes , and therapsids (the "mammal-like reptiles" that later evolved into the first mammals).. During the late Triassic period, two-legged archosaurs spawned the first dinosaurs , the descendants of which ruled the planet until the end of the Mesozoic Era 175 million years later.. Dmitry Bogdanov / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 3.0. At least some of the ancestral reptiles of the Carboniferous period led partly (or mostly) aquatic lifestyles, but the true age of marine reptiles didn't begin until the appearance of the ichthyosaurs ("fish lizards") during the early to middle Triassic period.. Like their dinosaur and marine reptile cousins, the pterosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago.. After dinosaurs, pterosaurs and marine reptiles vanished off the face of the earth 65 million years ago, the big theme in vertebrate evolution was the rapid progression of mammals from small, timid, mouse-sized creatures to the giant megafauna of the middle to late Cenozoic Era , including oversized wombats, rhinoceroses, camels, and beavers.. Among the mammals that ruled the planet in the absence of dinosaurs and mosasaurs were prehistoric cats , prehistoric dogs , prehistoric elephants , prehistoric horse, prehistoric marsupials and prehistoric whales , most species of which went extinct by the end of the Pleistocene epoch (often at the hands of early humans).

Fossils have fascinated humankind from time immemorial. These preserved remains from a bygone era transport us through time to discover more about the world before our arrival. In this gallery, discover the most amazing fossils in the world.

These preserved remains from a bygone era transport us through time to discover more about the world before our arrival.. Over 5,000 years old, Ötzi underwent natural mummification, enabling us to learn more about this period in history and this particular man.. This 248-million-year-old female Ichthyosaurus was giving birth when she was buried alive.. One was found close to her body, the second half way out of her birth canal, and the third still in her belly!. The fossil, which dates from the Triassic Period (250 million years ago), is the oldest example of the species ever discovered!. This Nothosaurus was discovered in Alberta and is famous for being almost perfectly preserved.. Dating back 110 million years, this fossil marked the discovery of a new species.. It was previously thought that the species had been extinct for over 300 000 years !. In 2000, a team of scientists discovered the fossil of a dinosaur that was 77 million years old!. Ingentia is a 210-million-year-old dinosaur fossil .

The study of the genomes of our closest relatives, the Neanderthals and Denisovans, has opened up new research paths that can broaden our understanding of the evolutionary history of Homo sapiens. A new study has made an estimation of the time when some of the genetic variants that characterize our species emerged. It does so by analyzing mutations that are very frequent in modern human populations, but not in these other species of archaic humans.

A study led by the University of Barcelona has made an estimation of the time when some of the genetic variants that characterise our species emerged.. The results, published in the journal Scientific Reports, show two moments in which mutations accumulated: one around 40,000 years ago, associated with the growth of the Homo sapiens population and its departure from Africa, and an older one, more than 100,000 years ago, related to the time of the greatest diversity of types of Homo sapiens in Africa.. We have discovered how these variants accumulate over time, reflecting events such as the point of divergence between Homo sapiens and other human species around 100,000 years ago," says Alejandro Andirkó, first author of this article, which was part of his doctoral thesis at the UB.. The study, led by Cedric Boeckx, ICREA research professor in the section of General Linguistics and member of the Institute of Complex Systems of the UB (UBICS), included the participation of Juan Moriano, UB researcher, Alessandro Vitriolo and Giuseppe Testa, experts from the University of Milan and the European Institute of Oncology, and Martin Kuhlwilm, researcher at the University of Vienna.. Specifically, they highlight the predominance of genetic variants related to behaviour and facial structure -- key characteristics in the differentiation of our species from other human species -- more than 300,000 years ago, a date that coincides with the available fossil and archaeological evidence.. "We found that brain tissues have a particular genomic expression profile at different times in our history; that is, certain genes related to neural development were more highly expressed at certain times," says the researcher.. In that study they analysed genomic deserts, regions of the genome of our species where there are no genetic fragments of Neanderthals or Denisovans, and which, moreover, have been subjected to positive pressure in our species: that is, they have accumulated more mutations than would have been expected by neutral evolution.. The researchers studied the expression of genes -- i.e., which proteins code for different functions -- found in desert regions throughout brain development, from prenatal to adult stages, covering sixteen brain structures.. "These results bring into focus the relevance of brain structures beyond the neocortex, which has traditionally dominated research on the evolution of the human brain," says Juan Moriano.. ScienceDaily, 19 July 2022.

The modern ocean is a scary place, filled with barracuda, sharks, super-squids, and possibly Cthulhu. However, no matter what we find in the depths these

However, no matter what we find in the depths these days, none of them seem to come close to the giant terrors that roamed the seas in Earth’s past; giant sea- lizards , monster sharks and even “hypercarnivorous” whales.. For most of these things, humans would barely qualify as a snack.. Basilosaurs were predatory ancestors of modern whales, and could be 50 to 85 feet long!. Imagine swimming in the ocean with an 80+ foot long alligator-snake-whale.. Instead of teeth, it had bony ridges, like a turtle.. It was a “mere” 30 feet long and the longest teeth in its massive mouth were up to 11 inches long.. The head was up to 9 feet long.. Or maybe they just lived in the deep sea.. Imagine a cross between an orca and a sperm whale.. Livyatan melvillei was a whale that ate other whales.. It had the largest teeth of any animal to ever use their teeth to eat (elephant tusks are bigger, but they just look impressive and help them smash things; they don’t eat with them) topping out at 1.18 feet.. They lived in the same oceans and ate the same food as the Megalodon, so this whale actually had to compete with the largest predatory shark ever.. Not to mention their head was 10 feet long and featured the same echo-locating equipment as modern toothed whales, making them much more effective in murky water.. I guess, on the plus side, if there is one, at least these prehistoric sea monsters won’t try to eat you.

Are we in danger of being erased from the universe? Here we look at the factors that could doom humanity: natural disasters, human-triggered cataclysms, willful self-destruction, and greater forces directed against us.

Astronomers estimate similar-sized events occur every one to three centuries.. He says he worries more about threats that scientists are more certain of — such as rogue black holes.. The black hole wouldn't have to come all that close to Earth to bring ruin; just passing through the solar system would distort all of the planets' orbits.. From 1980 to 1992, reports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, mortality from infectious disease in the United States rose 58 percent.. They argued that their machine isn't nearly powerful enough to make a black hole or destabilize the vacuum.

Does the Bible say anything about a pre-Adamic (preadamic) race? Was there a race of human beings before Adam and Eve?

The concept of a pre-Adamic race is the idea that God created a race of humans who lived on the Earth before He created Adam, the first man.. Consider a very familiar passage, Romans 5:12-14: “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned—for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.”. This passage is traditionally interpreted as meaning that death began with Adam’s sin and reigned unchecked among men (even among those who haven’t actually eaten the forbidden fruit, those who have sinned but not “in the likeness of the offense of Adam”) until the Law was given to Moses.. According to La Peyrère, the pre-Adamic Gentiles sinned against God, but in a manner less egregious than Adam (which is why Adam’s sin brought death while theirs didn’t).. They merely sinned against God’s moral will, while Adam sinned against His Law.. Thus, according to La Peyrère, the pre-Adamic Gentiles were those who “had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam.”. Third, God created Eve for Adam because he was alone, there was no one else like him around (“It is not good for the man to be alone… but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him” Genesis 2:18, 20).. As for Cain’s fear of being lynched, his marriage to an unknown woman and the fact that he founded a city (Genesis 4:14-17), Adam was almost 130 years old by the time that Cain killed Abel (Adam had Seth, his next son after Abel’s death, when he was about 130 years old; Genesis 4:25; 5:3).. According to the Gap Theory, an unspecified amount of time passed between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, during which God created a pre-Adamic race of men who lived upon the earth until God destroyed them in judgment.. In the King James Version of the Bible, God says to Adam, “Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.” Proponents of the Gap Theory emphasize the word “replenish.” They interpret the text as saying that Adam and Eve were to refill the Earth.. The problem with this view is that, regardless of what it says in English translations, the Hebrew word is mâlê’ , and it simply means “to fill” or “to be full.” Moreover, the English translators of the King James Version knew the word means “to fill.” They chose “replenish” because, in 17th-century Elizabethan English, “replenish” meant “to fill” (similar to how in modern English the word “replete” doesn’t mean to “abound again,” it simply means “abundant” or “abounding”).. Can’t we then interpret the same command to Adam to mean the same thing—that Adam was to repopulate the earth after God’s judgment?

Passage 1: Finches on Islands - Passage 2: The evolutional mystery: Crocodile survives - Passage 3: Thomas Harriot The Discovery of Refraction

On Daphne Major-one of the most desolate of the Galápagos Islands, an uninhabited volcanic cone where cacti and shrubs seldom grow higher than a researcher’s knee-Peter and Rosemary Grant have spent more than three decades watching Darwin’s finch respond to the challenges of storms, drought and competition for food Biologists at Princeton University, the Grants know and recognize many of the individual birds on the island and can trace the birds’ lineages hack through time.. Its bill is a middling example in the array of shapes and sizes found among Galápagos finches: heftier than that of the small ground finch, which specializes in eating small, soft seeds, but petite compared to that of the large ground finch, an expert at cracking and devouring big, hard seeds.. When the Grants began their study in the 1970s, only two species of finch lived on Daphne Major, the medium ground finch and the cactus finch.. ‘We realized,’ Peter Grant says, ‘we had a very unusual and potentially important event to follow.’ For 20 years, the large ground finch coexisted with the medium ground finch, which shared the supply of large seeds with its bigger-billed relative.. Medium ground finches with large bills, crowded out of feeding areas by the more powerful large ground finches, were hit particularly hard.. When wetter weather returned in 2004, and the finches nested again, the new generation of the medium ground finch was dominated by smaller birds with smaller bills, able to survive on smaller seeds.. The finches appeared to be in the early stages of a new adaptive radiation: If the trend continued, the medium ground finch on Santa Cruz could split into two distinct subspecies, specializing in different types of seeds.. It hunts fish, grabs birds at the surface, hides among the water edge vegetation to wait for a gazelle to come by, and when there is a chance for an ambush, the crocodile lunges forward, knocks the animal with its powerful tail and then drags it to water where it quickly drowns.. In many places inhabited by crocodilians, most types of the crocodile have evolved a successful scheme to survive in the drought brought by a 21 ……………………… According to Kennett and Christian’s six-year study of Australian freshwater crocodiles’ aestivation, they found Aestivating crocodiles spent around 22 ……………………… a year without access to 23 ……………………… The absolute size of body water pools declined proportionately with 24 ………………………; thus there is no sign of 25 ……………………… and other health-damaging impact in the crocodiles even after an aestivation period.. Kepler later tried to obtain additional experimental results on refraction, and corresponded with Thomas Harriot from 1606 to 1609 since Kepler had heard Harriot had carried out some detailed experiments.. Around 1606, he had studied dispersion in prisms (predating Newton by around 60 years), measured the refractive indices of different liquids placed in a hollow glass prism, studied refraction in crystal spheres, and correctly understood refraction in the rainbow before Descartes.. As his studies of refraction, Harriot’ s discoveries in other fields were largely unpublished during his lifetime, and until this century, Harriot was known only for an account of his travels in Virginia published in 1588, ,and for a treatise on algebra published posthumously in 1631.


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